The Historical Faustus                                                                  About the Faust Book

His Almanacs and Horoscopes


Doctor Faustus, being no longer able to obtain answers from his spirit concerning godly matters, now had to rest content and desist from this purpose. It was in those days that he set about making almanacs and became a good astronomus and astrologus. He gained so much learning and experience from the spirit concerning horoscopes that all which he did contrive and write won the highest praise among all the mathematici of that day (as is, after all, common knowledge by now) .His horoscopes, which he sent to great lords and princes, always were correct, for he contrived them according to the advice of his spirit as to what would come to pass in the future, all such matters falling duly out even as he had presaged them.

His tables and almanacs were praised above others because he set down naught in them but what did indeed come to pass. When he forecast fogs, wind, snow, precipitation, etc., these things were all quite certain. His almanacs were not as those of some unskilled astrologi who know of course that it gets cold in the winter, and hence forecast freezes, or that it will be hot in the summer, and predict thunderstorms. Doctor Faustus always calculated his tables in the manner described above, setting what should come to pass, specifying the day and the hour and especially warning the particular districts--this one with famine, that one with war, another with pestilence, and so forth.

A Disputatio, or Inquiry Concerning

the Art of Astronomia, or Astrologia


One time after Doctor Faustus had been contriving and producing such horoscopes and almanacs for about two years he did ask his spirit about the nature of astronomia or astrologia as practiced by the mathematici.

The spirit gave answer, saying: My Lord Fauste, it is so ordained that the ancient haruspices and modern stargazers are unable to forecast anything particularly certain, for these are deep mysteries of God which mortals cannot plumb as we spirits can, who hover in the air beneath Heaven where we can see and mark what God bath predestined. Yes, we are ancient spirits, experienced in the Heavenly movements. Why, Lord Fauste, I could make thee a perpetual calendar for the setting of horoscopes and almanacs or for nativity investigations one year after the other. --Thou bast seen that I have never lied to thee. Now it is true that the Patriarchs, who lived for five and six hundred years, did comprehend the fundamentals of this art and became very adept. For when such a great number of years elapse a lunisolar period is completed, and the older generation can apprise the younger of it. Except for that, all green, inexperienced astrologi have to set up their horoscopes arbitrarily according to conjecture.

A Disputatio and False Answer

Which the Spirit Gave to Doctor Faustus


The spirit, finding Doctor Faustus all sorrowful and melancholy, did ask him what his grievance might be, and what was on his mind. When he saw that Doctor Faustus would give him no answer, he became importunate and pressing, demanding to know the exact nature of Faustus' thoughts, so that he might be of some aid to him if at all possible.

Doctor Faustus answered, saying: Well, I have taken thee unto me as a servant, and thy service doth cost me dear enough. Yet I cannot have my will of thee, as would be proper of a servant.

The spirit spake: My Lord, thou knowest that I have never opposed thee, but have ever humored thee. Except on one occasion, when I withheld information on one specific subject and under certain express terms, I have ever been submissive unto thee. Now why wilt thou not reveal thy desires? What is in thy mind?

With such talk the spirit stole away the heart of Faustus, and he confessed that he had been wondering how God created the world, and about the original birth of mankind. The spirit now gave Faustus a godless, unchristian and childish account and report on this subject, saying:

The world, my Lord Fauste, hath never experienced birth and will never know death, and the human race has always existed. There is not any origin or beginning of things. The earth subsists, as always, of itself. The sea arose from the earth, and the two got along so very well that one would think they had carried on a conversation in which the land had required his realm from the sea, the fields, meadows, woods, grass and trees; and that the sea had likewise demanded his own realm of water with the fish and all else therein. Now they did concede to God the creation of mankind and of Heaven, and this is the way they finally became subservient to God. Thou wilt observe that I have explained how from one realm there finally arose four: air, fire, water, and earth. I know none other, nor briefer, way of instructing thee.

Doctor Faustus speculated on these things but could not comprehend them, for in the first chapter of Genesis he had read how Moses had told it otherwise. For this reason, he made no further comment.

How Doctor Faustus Traveled

Down to Hell


With each passing day, Doctor Faustus' end drew closer, and he was now come into his eighth year, having been for themost part of the time engaged in inquiry, study, questioning and disputationes. In these days he again did dream of Hell, and it caused him again to summon his servant, the spirit Mephostophiles, demanding that he call his own lord, Belial, unto him. The spirit agreed to do this, but instead of Belial a devil was sent who called himself Beelzebub, a flying spirit reigning beneath Heaven. When he asked what Doctor Faustus desired of him, Faustus asked whether it could not be arranged for a spirit to conduct him into Hell and out again, so that he might see and mark the nature, fundament, quality and substance of Hell.

Yes, answered Beelzebub, I will come at midnight and fetch thee.

Well, when it got pitch dark Beelzebub appeared unto him, bearing upon his back a bone chair which was quite enclosed round about. Here Doctor Faustus took a seat, and they flew away. Now hear how the Devil did mystify and gull him, so that he had no other notion than that he really had been in Hell.

He bare him into the air, where Doctor Faustus fell asleep just as if he were lying in a bath of warm water. Soon afterward he came upon a mountain of a great island, high above which sulphur, pitch and flashes of fire blew and crashed with such a tumult that Doctor Faustus awoke just as his devilish dragon swooped down into the abyss. Although all was violently burning round about him, he sensed neither heat nor fire, but rather little spring breezes as in May. Then he heard many different instruments whose music was exceeding sweet, but, as bright as shone the fire, he could see no one playing, nor durst he ask, questions having been strictly forbidden him.

Meanwhile, three more devilish dragons had flown up alongside Beelzebub. They were just like him and they went flying along ahead of him as he penetrated further into the chasm. Now a great flying stag with mighty antlers and many points came at Doctor Faustus and would have dashed him off his chair and down into the pit. It frightened him greatly, but the three dragons flying ahead repulsed the hart. When he was better come down into the spelunca, he could see hovering about him a great multitude of serpents and snakes, the latter being unspeakably big. Flying lions came to his aid this time. They wrestled and struggled with the great snakes until they conquered them, so that he passed through safely and well.

When Doctor Faustus had attained a greater depth, he saw a huge, flying, angry bull come forth out of a hole which might have been an old gate. Bellowing and raging, he charged Faustus, goring his sedan chair with such a force as to overturn pavilion, dragon and Faustus, who now did fall off from his chair into the abyss, down and down, screaming woe and waily and thinking : All is over now. He could no longer see his spirit, but at last an old wrinkled ape caught him up as he fell, held him and saved him. But then a thick dark fog fell upon Hell, so that he could not see anything at all until presently a cloud opened up, out of which climbed two big dragons pulling a coach along after them. The old ape was setting Faustus upon it when there arose such a storm wind with terrible thunder claps and stench of sulphur and quaking of the mountain or abyss that Faustus thought he must faint away and die.

He was indeed enveloped in a deep darkness for about a quarter of an hour, during which time he had no perception of the dragons or of the coach, but he did have a sensation of movement. Again the thick dark fog disappeared, and he could see his steeds and coach. Down the cavern shot such multitude of lightning and flames upon his head that the boldest man--not to mention Faustus--would have trembled for fear. The next thing he perceived was a great turbid body of water. His dragons entered it and submerged. Yet Faustus felt no water at all, but great heat and radiance instead. The current and waves beat upon him until he again lost both steeds and coach and went falling deeper and deeper into the terror of the depths. At last he found himself upon a high, pointed crag and here he sat, feeling half dead.

He looked about, but as he was able to see and hear no one, he began contemplating the bottomless pit. A little breeze arose. All around him was naught but water. He thought to himself: What shalt thou do now, being forsaken even by the spirits in Hell? Why thou must hurl thyself either into the water or into the pit. At this thought he fell into a rage, and in a mad, crazy despair he leapt into the fiery hole, calling out as he cast himself in: Now, spirits, accept my offering. I have earned it. My soul hath caused it.

Well, just at the moment when he hurled himself head over heels and went tumbling down, such a frightful loud tumult and banging assailed his ears, and the mountainpeak shook so furiously that he thought many big cannons must have been set off, but  it was only that he had come to the bottom of Hell. Here were many worthy personages in a fire: emperors, kings, princes and lords, many thousand knights and men-at-arms. A cool stream ran along at the edge of the fire, and here some were drinking, refreshing themselves, and bathing, but some were fleeing from its cold, back into the fire. Doctor Faustus stepped up, thinking he might seize one of the damned souls, but even when he thought he had one in his hand it would vanish. On account of the intense heat, he knew he could not stay in this vicinity, and was seeking some way out when his spirit Beelzebub came with the sedan chair. Doctor Faustus took a seat and away they soared, for he could not long have endured the thunderclaps, fog, fumes, sulphur, water, cold and heat, particularly since it was compounded with wailing, weeping and moaning of woe, anguish and pain.

Now Doctor Faustus had not been at home for a long while. His famulus felt sure that, if he had achieved his desire of seeing Hell, he must have seen more than he had bargained for and would never come back. But even while he was thinking thus, Doctor Faustus, asleep in his pavilion, came flying home in the night and was cast, still asleep, into his bed. When he awoke early the next morning and beheld the light of dawn, he felt exactly as if he had been imprisoned for some time in a dark tower. At a later date, of course, he became acquainted only with the fire of Hell, and with the effects of those flames, but now he lay in bed trying to recollect what he had seen in Hell. At first he was firmly convinced that he had been there and had seen it, but then he began to doubt himself, and assumed that the Devil had charmed a vision before his eyes. --And this is true, for he had not seen Hell, else he would not have spent the rest of his life trying to get there. This history and account of what he saw in Hell--or in a vision--was written down by Doctor Faustus himself and afterwards found in his own handwriting upon a piece of paper in a locked book.

How Doctor Faustus Journeyed Up

into the Stars


This record was also found among his possessions, having been composed and indited in his own hand and addressed to one of his close companions, a physic in Leipzig named Jonas Victor. The contents were as followeth :

Most dear Lord, and Brother ,

I yet remember, as ye no doubt do, too, our school days in Wittemberg, where ye at first devoted yourself to medicina, astronomia, astrologia, geometria, so that ye are now a mathematicus and physicus. But I was not like unto you. I, as well ye know, did study theologia--although I nevertheless became your equal in the arts ye studied, too.

Now, as to your request that I report some few matters unto you and give you my advice: I, neither being accustomed to denying you aught, nor having ever refused to report aught to you, am still your servant, whom ye shall ever find and know to be such. I do express my gratitude for the honor and praise which ye accord me. In your epistle ye make mention of mine Ascension unto Heaven, among the stars, for ye have heard about it, and ye write requesting that I might inform you whether it be so or not, sithence such a thing doth seem to you quite impossible. Ye remark in addition that it must have occurred with the aid of the Devil or of sorcery. As quoth the clown to the Emperor when asked if he had sullied his breeches, "Ay, how wilt thou bet, Fritz!" --Well, whatever means might have been used, it hath finally been accomplished, and of this figura, actus and event I can make you the following report:

One night I could not go to sleep, but lay thinking about my almanacs and horoscopes and about the properties and arrangements in the Heavens, how man--or some of the physics--hath measured those ornaments and would interpret them, even though he cannot really visualize such things and hence must base his interpretations and calculations quite arbitrarily on books and the tenets in them. While in such thoughts, I heard a loud blast of wind go against my house. It threw open my shutters, my chamber door and all else, so that I was not a little astonished. Right afterward I heard a roaring voice saying:

Get thee up! Thy heart's desire, intent and lust shalt thou see.

I made answer: If it be possible for me to see that which hath just been the object of my thoughts and wishes, then I am well content.

He did answer again, saying: Then look out at thy window where thou canst see our carriage.

That I did, and I saw a coach with two dragons come flying down. The coach was illuminated with the flames of Hell, and inasmuch as the moon shone in the sky that night I could see my steeds as well. These creatures had mottled brown and white wings and the same color back; their bellies, however, were of a greenish hue with yellow and white flecks.

The voice spake again: Well get thee in and be off!

I answered: I will follow thee, but only on condition that I may ask any question I like.

Good, he answered, be it then in this instance permitted thee. So I climbed up onto my casement, jumped down into my carriage, and off I went, the flying dragons drawing me ever upward; and it did seem a miracle that the coach really had four wheels that crunched right along as if I were journeying over land. --To be sure, the wheels did gush forth streams of fire as they whirled around.

The higher I ascended, the darker did the world become, and when I would look down into the world from the Heavens above, it was exactly as if I were gazing into a dark hole from bright daylight. In the midst of such upward shooting and soaring, my servant and spirit came whirring along and took a seat beside me in the coach.

I said to him: My Mephostophiles, what is to become of me now?

Let such thoughts neither confuse thee nor impede thee, spake he and drave on higher upward.

Now Will I Tell You What I Did See


Departing on a Tuesday, and returning on a Tuesday, I was out one week, during which time I neither slept nor did feel any sleep in me. Incidentally, I remained quite invisible throughout the journey. On the first morning, at break of day, I said to my Mephostophiles:

I suppose thou dost know how far we are come ( now as long as I was up there I knew neither hunger nor thirst, but I could well observe only by looking back at the world that I was come a good piece this night).

Mephostophiles said: In faith, my Fauste, thou art now come forty-seven mile up into the sky.

During the remainder of the day I discovered that I could look down upon the world and make out many kingdoms, principalities and seas. I could discern the worlds of Asia, Africa and Europe, and while at this altitude I said unto my servant:

Now point out to me and instruct me as to the names of these various lands and realms.

This he did, saying: This over here on the left is Hungary. Lo, there is Prussia. Across there is Sicily--Poland--Denmark--Italy -Germany. Now tomorrow shalt thou inspect Asia and Africa and canst see Persia, Tartary, India and Arabia. --But just look, right now the wind is changing and we can observe Pommerania, Muscovy and Prussia. See, there is Poland--and Germany again--Hungary--and Austria.

On the third day I did look down into Major and Minor Turkey, Persia, India and Africa. I saw Constantinople before me, and in the Persian and Constantinopolitan Sea many ships with war troops shuttling busily back and forth. Constantinople looked so small that there appeared to be no more than three houses there, with people not a span long.

Now I departed in July when it was very hot, and, as I looked now this way and now that, toward the East, South and North, I observed how it was raining at one place, thundering at another, how the hail did fall here while at another place the weather was fair. In fine, I saw all things in the world as they do usually come to pass.

After I had been up there for a week, I began to observe what was above me, watching from a distance how the Heavens did move and roll around so fast that they seemed about to fly asunder into many thousand pieces, the cloud sphere cracking so violently as if it were about to burst and break the world open. The Heavens were so bright that 1 could not perceive anything any higher up, and it was so hot that I should have burned to a crisp had my servant not charmed a breeze up for me. The cloud sphere which we see down there in the world is as solid and thick as a masonry wall, but it is of one piece and as clear as crystal. The rain, which originates there and then falls upon the earth, is so clear that we could see ourselves reflected in it.

Now this cloud sphere moveth in the Heavens with such a force that it runneth from East to West despite the fact that sun, moon and stars strive against it, so that the momentum of the cloud sphere doth indeed drive sun, moon and stars along with it. Thus we see how and why these bodies needs must proceed from East to West. Down in our world it doth appear --and I myself thought so, too--that the sun is no bigger than the head of a barrel. But it is in fact much bigger than the whole world: for I could discover no end to it at all. At night, when the sun goeth down, the moon must take on the sun's light, this being why the moon shineth so bright at night. And directly beneath Heaven there is so much light that even at night it is daytime in Heaven--this even though the earth remaineth quite dark. Thus I saw more than I had desired. One of the stars, for example, was larger than half the world. A planet is as large as the world. And, in the aery sphere, there I beheld the spirits which dwell beneath Heaven.

While descending, I did look down upon the world again, and it was no bigger than the yolk of an egg. Why, to me the world seemed scarcely a span long, but the oceans looked to be twice that size. Thus, on the evening of the seventh day did I arrive home again, and I slept for three days on a row. I have disposed my almanacs and horoscopes in accordance with my observations, and I did not wish to withhold this fact from you. Now inspect your books and see whether the matter is not in accordance with my vision.

And accept my cordial greetings,

                                                                                 Dr. Faustus


Doctor Faustus' Third Journey


It was in his sixteenth year that Doctor Faustus undertook a tour or a pilgrimage, instructing his servant that he should conduct and convey him whithersoever he would go. He journeyed invisible down to Rome, where he went unseen into the Pope's Palace and beheld all the servants and courtiers and the many sorts of dishes and fine foods that were being served.

For shame! he remarked to his spirit. Why did not the Devil make a Pope of me?

Yes, Doctor Faustus found all there to be his ilk in arrogance, pride, much insolence, transgression, gluttony, drunkenness, whoring, adultery and other fine blessings of the Pope and his rabble. This caused Doctor Faustus to observe:

Methought I were the Devil's own swine, but he will let me fatten for a long while yet. These hogs in Rome are already fatted and ready to roast and boil.

Since he had heard much of Rome, he remained for three days and nights in the Pope's Palace, using his sorcery to render himself invisible. Now hear ye the adventures and the art which he used in the Pope's Palace.

The good Lord Faustus, having had little good meat and drink for some time, came and stood invisible before the Pope's board, even as he was about to eat. The Pope crossed himself before taking meat, and at that moment Doctor Faustus did blow hard into his face. Every time the Pope crossed himself, Faustus would blow into his face again. Once he laughed aloud, so that it was audible in the whole hall; again, he did weep most convincingly. The servants knew not what this might portend, but the Pope told his people it was a damned soul of which he had exacted penance and which was now begging for absolution. Doctor Faustus enjoyed this very much, for such mystifications well pleased him, too.

When the last course finally arrived and was set before the Pope, Doctor Faustus, feeling his own hunger, raised up his hands, and instantly all the courses and fine dishes together with their platters flew right into them. Together with his spirit he then rushed away to a mountain in Rome called the Capitolium, there to dine with great relish. Later he sent his spirit back with an order to fetch the daintiest wines from the Pope's table together with the finest goblets and flaggons.

When the Pope found out how many things had been stolen from him, he caused all the bells to be rung throughout the entire night and had mass and petition held for the departed souls. In anger toward one particular departed soul, however, he formally condemned it to purgatory with bell, book and candle. As for Doctor Faustus, he accepted the Pope's meat and drink as an especial dispensation. The silver was found in his house after his death.

At midnight, when he was sated with the victuals, he bestrode a horse and flew off to Constantinople. Here Doctor Faustus viewed the Turkish Emperor's might, power, brilliance and court entourage for a few days. One evening when the Emperor sat at table Doctor Faustus performed for him an apish play and spectacle. Great tongues of fire burst up in the hall, and when everyone was hastening to quench them, it commenced to thunder and lighten. Such a spell was cast upon the Turkish Emperor that he could not arise, nor could he be carried out of there. The hall became as bright as the very homeland of the sun, and Faustus's spirit, in the figure, ornaments and trappings of a Pope, stepped before the Emperor, saying:

Hail Emperor, so full of grace that I, thy Mahomet do appear unto thee!

Saying nothing more, he disappeared. This hoax caused the Emperor to fall down upon his knees, calling out unto Mahomet and praising him that he had been so gracious as to appear before him.

The next morning, Doctor Faustus went into the Emperor's castle, where the Turk has his wives or whores, and where no one is permitted except gelded boys who wait upon the women. He charmed this castle with such a thick fog that naught could be seen. Now Doctor Faustus transformed himself as had his spirit before, but posed as Mahomet himself, and he did reside for a while in this castle, the mist remaining throughout his stay, and the Turk during this same period admonishing his people to perform many rites. But Doctor Faustus drank and was full of good cheer, taking his pleasure and dalliance there. When he was through he used the same art as before and ascended into the sky in papish raiment and ornament.

Now when Faustus was gone and the fog disappeared, the Turk came to his castle, summoned his wives and asked who had been there while the castle was for so long surrounded with fog. They informed him how it was the god Mahomet who at night had called this one and that one to him, lain with them and said that from his seed would rise up a great nation and valiant heroes. The Turk accepted it as a great benefit that Mahomet had lain with his wives, but he wondered if it had been accomplished according to the manner of mortals. Oh yes, they answered, that was the way it had been done. He had called them, embraced them, and was well fitted out--they would fain be served in such sort every day. He had lain with them naked and was certainly a man in all parts, except that they had not been able to understand his tongue. The priests instructed the Turk that he ought not believe it had been Mahomet, but rather a phantom. The wives on the other hand said, be it ghost or man, he had been very kind to them and had served them masterfully, once or six times--nay, even more often--in a night; all of which caused the Turk much contemplation, and he remained doubtful in the matter.

Concerning the Stars


A prominent scholar in Halberstadt, Doctor N. V. W., invited Doctor Faustus to his table. Before supper was ready, Faustus stood for a while gazing out the window at the Heavens, it being Harvest time and the sky filled with stars. Now his host, being also a Doctor of Physic and a good astrologus, had brought Doctor Faustus here for the purpose of learning from him divers transformations in the planets and stars. Therefore he now leaned upon the window beside Doctor Faustus and looked also upon the brilliance of the Heavens, the multitude of stars, some of which were shooting through the sky and falling to the earth. In all humility he made request that Doctor Faustus might tell him the condition and quality of this thing.

Doctor Faustus began on this wise: My most dear Lord and Brother, this condition doth presuppose certain other matters which ye must understand first. The smallest star in Heaven, although when beheld from below it seems to our thinking scarcely so big as our large wax candles, is really larger than a principality. Oh yes, this is certain. I have seen that the length and breadth of the Heavens is many times greater than the surface of the earth. From Heaven, ye cannot even see earth. Many a star is broader than this land, and most are at least as large as this city. --See, over there is one fully as large as the dominion of the Roman Empire. This one right up here is as large as Turkey. And up higher there, where the planets are, ye may find one as big as the world.

A Question on This Topic


I know that to be true, saith this doctor. But my Lord Faustus, how is it with the spirits who vex men and thwart their works (as some people say) by day and by night as well?

Doctor Faustus answered: We ought not to begin with this topic, but with the ordinances and creation of God, it being in accordance with these that the sun doth at break of day turn again toward the world with his radiance (it being also nearer in summer than in winter), and that the spirits then move beneath the cloud sphere where God hath committed them that they may discover all his portents. As the day progresses, they rise upward beneath the cloud sphere, for they are granted no affinity with the sun: the brighter it shines, the higher they do seek to dwell. In this context we might speak of forbidden days, for God hath not granted them light nor allowed them such a property.

But by night, when it is pitch dark, then they are among us, for the brightness of the sun--even though it is not shining here--is in the first Heaven so intense that it is as daylight there (this being why in the blackness of night, even when no stars shine, men still perceive Heaven) .It followeth therefore that the spirits, not being able to endure or to suffer the aspect of the sun, which hath now ascended upwards, must come near unto us on earth and dwell with men, frightening them with nightmares, howling and spooks. Now what will ye wager and bet: when ye go abroad in the dark without a light--if ye dare do such a thing--a great fear will seize you. Furthermore, if ye are alone by night ye are possessed by strange phantasies, although the day bringeth no such things. At night some will start up in their sleep, another thinks there be a spirit near him, or that one be groping out for him, or that  another will walk round in the house, or in his sleep, etc. There are many such trials, all because the spirits are at that hour near to vex and plague men with multitudinous delusions.

The Second Question


I thank you very much, spake the doctor, my dear Lord Faustus, for your brief account. I shall remember it and ponder upon it my life long. But, if I may trouble you further, would ye not instruct me once more as concerns the brilliance of the stars and their appearance by night.

Yea, very briefly, answered Doctor Faustus. Now it is certain, so soon as the sun doth ascend into the Third Heaven (if it should move down into the First Heaven, it  would ignite the earth--but the time for that is not yet come, and the earth must still proceed along her God-ordained course), when the sun doth so far withdraw itself, I say, then doth it become the right of the stars to shine for as long as God hath ordained. The First and Second Heavens, which contain these stars, are then brighter than two of our summer days, and offer an excellent refuge for the birds by night.

Night, therefore, observed from Heaven, is nothing else than day, or, as one might also aver, the day is half the night. For ye must understand that when the sun ascends, leaving us here in night, the day is just beginning in such places as India and Africa. And when our sun shineth, their day waneth, and they have night.

The Third Question


But I still do not understand, spake the Doctor from Halberstadt, the action of the stars, how they glitter, and how they fall down to earth.

Doctor Faustus answered: This is nothing out of the ordinary, but an everyday happening. It is indeed true that the stars, like the Firmament and other Elementa, were created and disposed in the Heavens in such a fashion that they are immutable. But they do undergo certain changes in color and in other external qualities. The stars manifest superficial changes of this sort when they give off sparks or little flames, for these are bits of match falling from the stars--or, as we call them, shooting stars. They are hard, black, and greenish.

But that a star itself might fall--why this is nothing more than a fancy of mankind. When by night a great streak of fire is seen to shoot downward, these are not falling stars, although we do call them that, but only slaggy pieces from the stars. They are big things, to be sure, and, as is true of the stars themselves, some are much bigger than others. But it is my opinion that no star itself falleth except as a scourge of God. Then such falling stars bring a murkiness of the Heavens with them and cause great floods and devastation of lives and land.


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